What are variables and why use them in JavaScript

The main purpose of coding is to solve problems. What happens when you click on a button? That’s also a problem for us to solve.

So, let’s begin this article by solving a simple problem.

Counting apples

If you have 4 apples and you buy 27 more, how many apples do you have? Take a second and write your answer in your text editor.

What’s your answer?

// This?
31

// Or this?
4 + 27

Both answers are right, but the second method is better, because you’re offloading the calculation to JavaScript. You’re teaching it how to arrive at the answer.

But there’s still one problem with the code.

If you look at 4 + 27 without any context from our apple problem, do you know we’re calculating the number of apples you’re currently holding?

Probably not.

So, a better way is to use Algebra to substitute 4 and 27 with variables. When you do so, you’ll get the ability to write code that has meaning:

initialApples + applesBought

The process of substituting 4 with a variable called initialApples is called declaring variables.

Declaring Variables

You declare variables with the following syntax:

const variableName = 'value'

There are four parts you’ll want to take note of:

  1. The variableName
  2. The value
  3. The = sign
  4. The const keyword

The variableName

variableName is the name of the variable you’re declaring. You can name it anything, as long as it follows these rules:

  1. It must be one word
  2. It must consist only of letters, numbers or underscores (0-9, a-z, A-Z, _).
  3. It cannot begin with a number.
  4. It cannot be any of these reserved keywords

If you need to use two or more words to name your variable, you should join the words together, but capitalize the first letter of each subsequent word. This weird capitalization is called camel case.

A good example of a camel cased variable is applesToBuy.

The value

The value is what you want the variable to be. It can be primitives (like strings and numbers etc) or objects (like arrays and functions).

= in JavaScript

= in JavaScript doesn’t work like = in Math. Don’t get confused.

In JavaScript, = means assignment. When you use =, you set (or assign) the value on the right hand side (RHS) of the = sign to the left hand side (LHS) of the = sign.

In the following statement, you set the variable initialApples to the number 4.

const initialApples = 4

If you console.log this variable, you can see that initialApples is 4.

console.log(initialApples) // 4

Evaluation before assignment

Every variable can only take up one value. So, if you have an equation that needs to be evaluated on the RHS, it will be evaluated before it is assigned to the variable.

const initialApples = 4
const applesToBuy = 27

const totalApples = initialApples + applesToBuy

In this example, JavaScript will evaluate the answer of initialApples + applesToBuy (which results to 31) before assigning the results to totalApples. This is why you get 31 if tried to log totalApples.

console.log(totalApples) // 31

The const keyword

const is one of three keywords you can use to declare variables. There are two other keywords – let and var.

All three keywords declare variables, but they’re slightly different from each other.

Const vs let vs var

const and let are keywords made available to us in ES6. They are better keywords to create variables than var because they’re block scoped while var is function scoped.

For now, let’s concentrate on the difference between const and let.

Const vs let

If you declare a variable with const, you cannot reassign it with a new value. The following code produces an error:

const applesToBuy = 22

// Reassigning to a variable declared with const results in an error
applesToBuy = 27
Reassigning a variable declared with const results in an error
Reassigning a variable declared with const results in an error

If you declare a variable with let, you can reassign it with a new value.

let applesToBuy = 22
applesToBuy = 27
console.log(applesToBuy)
It's okay to reassign variables declared with let
It’s okay to reassign variables declared with let

Should you use const or let?

Understanding whether you should use const or let is more of an advanced topic.

When you’re starting out, using let would be much simpler than using const.

However, as you write more programs, you’ll slowly realize that you want to refrain from reassigning your variables, and you’ll begin to use const over let. Why you’ll want to do so is a different topic for another day.

Since you’re going to use const over let anyway when you write more advanced programs, it’s better to get into the habit of preferring const over let when you’re starting out.

In case you’re wondering, don’t use var anymore, because there’s no need for it. let and const are much better than var.

Wrapping up

In JavaScript, variables are used to hold a value. It can hold any value, from primitives to objects.

The = sign in JavaScript isn’t the same as the = sign in Math. In JavaScript, = means assignment.

When you declare variables, use camelCase to name your variables. Avoid the reserved keywords.

You can declare variables with either const, let or var. As much as possible, you’ll want to use const over let. Use let when you need to reassign values. There’s no longer a need to use var.

This article is a sample lesson from Learn JavaScript – a course that helps you learn JavaScript and build real, practical components from scratch. If you found this article helpful, I invite you to find out more about Learn JavaScript.

(Oh, by the way, if you liked this article, I'd appreciate it if you could share it. 🤗)

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